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Technical Vocabulary:
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Differential: A special gearbox designed so that the torque fed into it is split and delivered to two outputs that can turn at different speeds. The Limited Slip Differential is the high-performance upgrade for your cars in Gran Turismo 3.

Disc Brakes: A type of brake that consists of a disc that rotates at wheel speed, straddled by a caliper that can squeeze the surfaces of the disc near the edges. Disc brakes are more consitent than drum brakes, and they also operate better at higher tempera2qtures. Upgrading to Sports Brakes in GT3 is one the first upgrades you should make.

Drum Brakes: A type of brake that has an iron casting shaped like a drum that rotates with the wheel. Curved brake shoes are forced into contact with the inner section to provide braking force.

Headers: Fine-tuned exhaust pipes that route exhaust gases away from your engine. These are the high-performance replacement for conventional cast metal exhaust manifolds, and along with a better flowing exhaust and air cleaner, they bring a new meaning to the phrase "bolt-on-horsepower."

Lifters: This is the metal piece that rides on the individual cam lobes inside the engine. There are three primary types: roller, hydraulic, and solid.

Pushrods: In some types of valvetrain, pushrods are used to transfer reciprocating motion from the lifters to the rocker arms. The Dodge Viper uses pushrods for its V10.

Camshaft: A shaft (or shafts) fitted with several cams,whose lobes push on valve lifters to convert rotary motion into linear motion. The opening and closing of the valves in all piston engines is regualted by this.

Catalytic Converter: A steal canister fitted to a car's exhaust system that contains a thin layer of catalytic material. The material that is used is a combination of platinum, rhodium, and palladium. These fibers cause chemical reactions that convert exhaust gas emissions into less harmful products.

Crankshaft: The rotating shaft within the engine that delivers the power from the pistons to the flywheel. A shaft with one or more cranks, or "throws," that are coupled by connecting rods to the engine's pistons. Together, the crankshaft and the rods transform the pistons' reciprocating motion into rotarty motion.

Cylinder Head: Made of aluminum (or on older cars, cast iron), it is bolted to the top of each side of the engine block. Cylinder heads hold the valves and spark plugs, and also play home to the the intake and exhaust ports.

Driveshaft: The steel tube that connects the transmission to the rear-end housing. These endure serious strain during high HP application.

Intake Manifold: The housing that directs the air/fuel mixture through the port openings in the cylinder heads. All engines have an intake manifold.

Alternator: A belt-driven device mounted on the front of the engine that recharges the battery while the engine is running.

Brake Caliper: The part of a brake system that, when applied by the driver, clamps the brake disc/rotor to slow down the car. In GT3, you can actually see these if you look through the side of the wheels. Sometimes they even glow red.

Intercooler: A heat exchanger that cools the air that has been heated by compression in any type of supercharger. An intercooler resembles a radiator; it house large passagees for the intake flow, and uses either outside air or water directed over it to lower the temperature of the intake flow inside.

Torque Converter: These are used to help increase torque while minimizing the amount of power lost through the drivertrain. Inside is an element that redirects the (transmission) fluid against the output turbine, increasing the torque. Torque converters are often rated in stall speeds, which is how many RPM's it takes before the converter actually begins to turn you transmission.

Supercharger: A crank-driven air/fuel compressor, known as blower. Superchargers raise atmospheric pressure (compression) in the engine resulting in lots of "always on" horsepower.

Turbocharger: A supercharger powered by an exhaust-driven turbine, used to increase HP. Turbochargers use centrifulgal-flow compressors, which will operate well at the high speeds produced by the exhaust turbine.

Coil Spring: A bar of strengthened steel wound into a spiral that may be compressed or extended without permanant deformation. Coil springs have many automotive applications but are important as suspension springs.

Control Arm: A suspension element that has one joint at one end and two joints at the other, typically the chassis side. Also known as a wishbone or an A-arm.

Connecting Rod: This is the metal or aluminum rod that connects the piston to the crankshaft. In a four-cylinder engine, you'd have four connecting rods, in an eight-cylinder engine, you'd have eight connecting rods, and so on and so forth.

Flywheel: A heavy metal rotating wheel that is an essential part of the clutch system. It's used to keep elements such as the crankshaft turning steadily. In GT3, there are several high-performance version of this part.

Harmonic Balance: This is one of the most important things to maintaining a long-lasting racing engine, even though it isn't directly related to horsepower in any way. Basically, it's a small disc-shaped object that mounts on the front of the crankshaft, helping to reduce crankshaft vibration at very high RPM's.

Piston: A circular forging that moves up and down in the cylinder compressing the air/fuel mixture in the top of the chamber, helping to produce horsepower. In most cars, they are made of either steel or aluminum.
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